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  • Bibliography
| Last Updated: :12/03/2019


Title : Mercury
Subject : Mercury
Printed Year : 2018

Description : 
Title Mangifera indica as Bioindicator of Mercury Atmospheric Contamination in an ASGM Area in North Gorontalo Regency, Indonesia
Author Name Hendra Prasetia, Masayuki Sakakibara, Koji Omori, Jamie S. Laird, Koichiro Sera and Idham A. Kurniawan
Journal Name Geosciences
Year 2018
Volume and Issue Volume 8, Issue 1
Abstracts We report the atmospheric Hg contamination in an artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) area in North Gorontalo, Indonesia. It is well known that atmospheric Hg contaminates the air, water, soil, and living organisms, including trees. In this study, we calculated total weight of heavy metals, especially Hg, and quantitatively measure the concentrations of heavy metals, especially Hg, in tree bark from an ASGM area. Tree bark can be used for the environmental assessment of atmospheric contamination because it attaches and absorbs heavy metals. Atmospheric Hg and other heavy metals, including Fe and Mn, and As were detected on the tree bark samples. The total weight of Hg, As, Fe, and Mn in the tree bark samples ranged from undetectable(ND) to 9.77,NDto 81.3, 124–4028, 37.0–1376 _g dry weight (DW), respectively per weight of sample. Based on quantitatively analysis micro-PIXE, the highest concentrations of all these metals were detected in the outer part of the bark. We conclude that tree bark can absorb atmospheric contamination, which is then absorbed into the inner tissues.
Keywords atmospheric; mercury; ASGM; environmental; tree bark; heavy metals
Title Evaluation of leafy vegetables as bioindicators of gaseous mercury pollution in sewage-irrigated areas
Author Name Shun-an Zheng, Zeying Wu, Chun Chen, Junfeng Liang, Hongkun Huang, Xiangqun Zheng
Journal Name Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Year 2018
Volume and Issue Volume 25, Issue 1
Pages 413-421
Abstracts Mercury (Hg) can evaporate and enter the plants through the stomata of plant leaves, which will cause a serious threat to local food safety and human health. For the risk assessment, this study aimed to investigate the concentration and accumulation of total gaseous mercury (TGM) in five typical leafy vegetables (Chinese chives (Allium tuberosum Rottler), amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.), rape (Brassica campestris L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)) grown on sewage-irrigated areas in Tianjin, China. The following three sites were chosen to biomonitor Hg pollution: a paddy field receiving sewage irrigation (industrial and urban sewage effluents) for the last 30 years, a vegetable field receiving sewage irrigation for 15 years, and a grass field which did not receive sewage irrigation in history. Results showed that the total Hg levels in the paddy (0.65 mg kg−1) and vegetation fields (0.42 mg kg−1) were significantly higher than the local background level (0.073 mg kg−1) and the China national soil environment quality standard for Hg in grade I (0.30 mg kg−1). The TGM levels in ambient air were significantly higher in the paddy (71.3 ng m−3) and vegetable fields (39.2 ng m−3) relative to the control (9.4 ng m−3) and previously reported levels (1.45 ng m−3), indicating severe Hg pollution in the atmospheric environment of the sewage-irrigated areas. Furthermore, gaseous mercury was the dominant form of Hg uptake in the leaves or irreversibly bound to leaves. The comparison of Hg uptake levels among the five vegetables showed that the gradient of Hg accumulation followed the order spinach > red amaranth > Chinese chives > rape > lettuce. These results suggest that gaseous Hg exposure in the sewage-irrigated areas is a dominant Hg uptake route in leafy vegetables and may pose a potential threat to agricultural food safety and human health.
Keywords Gaseous mercury; Mercury; Sewage-irrigated area; Leafy vegetable; Soil; Biological indicators
Title Effects of different concentrations of mercury on accumulation of mercury by five plant species
Author Name Zhongchuang Liu, Li-ao Wang, Jianhua Xu, Shimin Ding, Xianghua Feng, Hongyan Xiao
Journal Name Ecological Engineering
Year 2017
Volume and Issue Volume 106, Part A
Pages 273-278
Abstracts The paper studied the absorption of Hg by five common herb species selected, Opuntia stricta, Aloe vera, Setcreasea purpurea, Chlorophytum comosum and Oxalis corniculata, in solution with different levels of mercury. We compared the accumulation of roots and shoots of the plants selected in medium containing different concentrations of mercury. The study was to explore what extent of mercury the five plant species were suitable for absorbing and transferring. The mercury amount uptake by five herb species was tested by CVAAS. The results demonstrated that the effect of different concentrations of mercury on the accumulation condition of roots was greater than that of shoots. There was an ideal Hg concentration for transfer by each plant species. Oxalis corniculata was the most suitable for transferring Hg and was more suitable for repairing soils with Hg at concentrations of less than 500 μg/L.
Keywords Phytoremediation; Mercury-contaminated soils; Accumulation
Title Mercury accumulation plant Cyrtomium macrophyllum and its potential for phytoremediation of mercury polluted sites
Author Name Yu Xun, Liu Feng, Youdan Li, Haochen Dong
Journal Name Chemosphere
Year 2017
Volume and Issue 189
Pages 161-170
Abstracts Cyrtomium macrophyllum naturally grown in 225.73 mg kg−1 of soil mercury in mining area was found to be a potential mercury accumulator plant with the translocation factor of 2.62 and the high mercury concentration of 36.44 mg kg−1 accumulated in its aerial parts. Pot experiments indicated that Cyrtomium macrophyllum could even grow in 500 mg kg−1 of soil mercury with observed inhibition on growth but no obvious toxic effects, and showed excellent mercury accumulation and translocation abilities with both translocation and bio concentration factors greater than 1 when exposed to 200 mg kg−1 and lower soil mercury, indicating that it could be considered as a great mercury accumulating species. Furthermore, the leaf tissue of Cyrtomium macrophyllum showed high resistance to mercury stress because of both the increased superoxide dismutase activity and the accumulation of glutathione and proline induced by mercury stress, which favorited mercury translocation from the roots to the aerial parts, revealing the possible reason for Cyrtomium macrophyllum to tolerate high concentration of soil mercury. In sum, due to its excellent mercury accumulation and translocation abilities as well as its high resistance to mercury stress, the use of Cyrtomium macrophyllum should be a promising approach to remediating mercury polluted soils.
Keywords Soil; Cyrtomium macrophyllum; Mercury; Phytoremediation
Title The Ability of Water Plants to Reduce the Level of Mercury Pollution in Water Quality in Irrigation
Author Name Rusnam and Efrizal
Journal Name International Journal of Waste Resources
Year 2016
Volume and Issue Volume-6, Issue-2
Abstracts This research was conducted on July–October 2013 about a mercury analysis which has been performed in Environmental Engineering Laboratory of Engineering Faculty, Andalas University. The level of mercury that is permitted by Government Regulation Republic Indonesia No. 82 of 2001 at the fourth grade for water are at 0.005 mg/l. In that analysis, mercury contents with 0.020169 mg/l at irrigated areas in Batang Hari River. This research aims to find out the ability of water lilies (Salvinia molesta), wood lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to decrease the content of water level. This research used experimental methods and the initial content of heavy metals mercury (Hg) by using 0.02 mg/L, 0.06 mg/L, and 0.1 mg/L. The results at decreasing concentrations of heavy metals mercury will be compared with the quality standard of heavy metal mercury at the fourth grade of water. The result showed that water lilies (Salvinia molesta), wood lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) were able to fix the water quality for irrigation which contaminated heavy metal (Hg). Then, mercury concentration reached a quality standard for irrigation at early concentration 0.02 mg/L during the 15 days and at early concentration 0.1 mg/L during 35 days. From the analysis, it was found that Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is the best plant to decrease the concentration of heavy metals mercury.
Keywords Water lilies (Salvinia molesta ); Wood lettuce (Pistia stratiotes ); Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes); Mercury (Hg); Water quality; Phytoremediation
Title Mercury toxicity, molecular response and tolerance in higher plants
Author Name Jian Chen , Zhi Min Yang
Journal Name Springer Science+Business Media
Year 2012
Volume and Issue 25
Pages 847–857
Abstracts Mercury (Hg) contamination in soils has become a great concern as a result of its natural release and anthropogenic activities. This review presents broad aspects of our recent understanding of mercury contamination and toxicology in plants including source of Hg contamination, toxicology, tolerant regulation in plants, and minimization strategy. We first introduced the sources of mercury contamination in soils. Mercury exists in different forms, but ionic mercury (Hg2+) is the predominant form in soils and readily absorbed by plants. The second issue to be discussed is the uptake, transport, and localization of Hg2+ in plants. Mercury accumulated in plants evokes severe phytotoxicity and impairs numerous metabolic processes including nutrient uptake, water status, and photosynthesis. The mechanisms of mercury-induced toxicology, molecular response and gene networks for regulating plant tolerance will be reviewed. In the case of Hg recent much progress has been made in profiling of transcriptome and more importantly, uncovering a group of small RNAs that potentially mediates plant tolerance to Hg. Several newly discovered signaling molecules such as nitric oxide and carbon monoxide have now been described as regulators of plant tolerance to Hg. A recently emerged strategy, namely selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize Hg (or other metals) accumulation will be discussed in the last part of the review.
Keywords Mercury Plants, Toxicology, Tolerance, Small RNA, Gene expression, Molecular response
Title Expression of a Brassica napus heme oxygenase confers plant tolerance to mercury toxicity
Author Name QI Shen, Ming Jiang, Hua li, Li ling Che and Zhi Min Yang
Journal Name Plant, Cell and Environment
Year 2011
Volume and Issue Volume 34, Issue 5
Pages 752–763
Abstracts Plant heme oxygenases (HOs) regulate biosynthesis of phytochrome which accounts for photo-acceptance and -morphogenesis. Recent studies have demonstrated that plant HOs also regulate many other physiological processes including response to environmental stimuli. To elucidate the mechanism by which HOs regulate plant adaptation to heavy metal exposure, three novel HOs genes were isolated from rapeseed (Brassica napus) and their expression patterns were analysed. Alignment of deduced protein sequences revealed that the three BnHOs share high identity with their corresponding orthologos (AtHO1-3) from Arabidopsis. To investigate whether the BnHO regulates plant tolerance to Hg toxicity, we constructed B. napus transgenic plants overexpressing BnHO-1. Under Hg stress, the transgenic plants had 1.41–1.59 folds higher biomass than the untransformants. However, overexpression of BnHO-1 resulted in less accumulation of Hg in some lines of transformants than in untransformants. The transgenic plants show lower abundance of reactive oxygen species and attenuated oxidative injury compared with the untransgenic plants. We cloned the promoter sequences of BnHO-1 from B. napus. Analysis revealed that the 1119 bp fragment contains a conserved Cd responsive element (CdRE) and others responding to multiple environmental stimuli. Transient expression in tobacco leaves showed differential responses to heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Hg and Cd).
Keywords Heavy Metals; oxidative stress; promoter; rapeseed
Title Metallothionein expression in chloroplasts enhances mercury accumulation and phytoremediation capability
Author Name Oscar N. Ruiz, Derry Alvarez, Cesar Torres, Laura Roman and Henry
Journal Name Daniell Plant Biotechnology journal
Year 2011
Volume and Issue Volume-9, Issue-5
Pages 609–617
Abstracts Genetic engineering to enhance mercury phytoremediation has been accomplished by expression of the merAB genes that protects the cell by converting Hg[II] into Hg[0] which volatilizes from the cell. A drawback of this approach is that toxic Hg is released back into the environment. A better phytoremediation strategy would be to accumulate mercury inside plants for subsequent retrieval. We report here the development of a transplastomic approach to express the mouse metallothionein gene (mt1) and accumulate mercury in high concentrations within plant cells. Real-time PCR analysis showed that up to 1284 copies of the mt1 gene were found per cell when compared with 1326 copies of the 16S rrn gene, thereby attaining homoplasmy. Past studies in chloroplast transformation used qualitative Southern blots to evaluate indirectly transgene copy number, whereas we used real-time PCR for the first time to establish homoplasmy and estimate transgene copy number and transcript levels. The mt1 transcript levels were very high with 183 000 copies per ng of RNA or 41% the abundance of the 16S rrn transcripts. The transplastomic lines were resistant up to 20 μm mercury and maintained high chlorophyll content and biomass. Although the transgenic plants accumulated high concentrations of mercury in all tissues, leaves accumulated up to 106 ng, indicating active phytoremediation and translocation of mercury. Such accumulation of mercury in plant tissues facilitates proper disposal or recycling. This study reports, for the first time, the use of metallothioniens in plants for mercury phytoremediation. Chloroplast genetic engineering approach is useful to express metalscavenging proteins for phytoremediation.
Keywords plastid genome; real-time PCR; bioremediation; genetic engineering; chelator; environmental biotechnology
Title Heavy metals toxicity in plants: An overview on the role of glutathione and phytochelatins in heavy metal stress tolerance of plants
Author Name S.K. Yadav
Journal Name South African Journal of Botany
Year 2010
Volume and Issue Volume-76, Issue-2
Pages 167–179
Abstracts Plants experience oxidative stress upon exposure to heavy metals that leads to cellular damage. In addition, plants accumulate metalions that disturb cellular ionic homeostasis. To minimize the detrimental effects of heavy metal exposure and their accumulation, plants have evolved detoxification mechanisms. Such mechanisms are mainly based on chelation and subcellular compartmentalization. Chelation of heavy metals is a ubiquitous detoxification strategy described in wide variety of plants. A principal class of heavy metal chelator known in plants is phytochelatins (PCs), a family of Cys-rich peptides. PCs are synthesized non-translationally from reduced glutathione (GSH) in a transpeptidation reaction catalyzed by the enzyme phytochelatin synthase (PCS). Therefore, availability of glutathione is very essential for PCs synthesis in plants at least during their exposure to heavy metals. Here, I reviewed on effect of heavy metals exposure to plants and role of GSH and PCs in heavy metal stress tolerance. Further, genetic manipulations of GSH and PCs levels that help plants to ameliorate toxic effects of heavy metals have been presented.
Keywords Glutathione; Heavy metal stress; Phytochelatins; Plants; Tolerance mechanism
Title Growth and antioxidant responses in Jatropha curcas seedling exposed to mercury toxicity
Author Name Shun Gao, Chao Ou-yang, Lin Tang, Jin-qiu Zhu, Ying Xu, Sheng-hua Wang, Fang Chen
Journal Name Journal of Hazardous Materials
Year 2010
Volume and Issue Volume-182, Issue-1-3
Pages 591–597
Abstracts Jatropha curcas seedlings were exposed to varying concentrations of mercury in order to investigate mercury accumulation, and the changes in growth and antioxidant enzyme activities using in vitro embryo germination and culture. Our results showed that mercury is readily accumulated by germinating embryos and growing seedlings, and its content was greater in the radicles than those of in the cotyledons and hypocotyls. This accumulation was directly correlated with an increase in tested mercury concentrations in the medium. Biomass in the cotyledons, hypocotyls and radicles increased gradually with increasing mercury concentrations, peaking in seedlings exposed to mercury concentration of 50 μM, and then decreased. Superoxide dismutase activities in the cotyledons, hypocotyls and radicles showed largest increment at mercury concentration of 100 μM. Peroxidase activities in the cotyledons and hypocotyls reached peaks at mercury concentration of 200 μM, and the highest activity in the radicles was observed at 100 μM. Catalase activities in the cotyledons and hypocotyls were significantly induced, and the highest activity in the radicles was observed at mercury concentration of 200 μM. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activities in the hypocotyls had a positive correlation to mercury concentrations, and the highest activities in the cotyledons and radicles were found at mercury concentrations of 200 and 100 μM, respectively. Analysis of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase isoenzymes suggested that different patterns depend on mercury concentrations and tissue types, and the staining intensities of these isoenzymes are consistent with the changes of these enzyme activities assayed in solutions.
Keywords In vitro embryo culture; Mercury toxicity; ROS-scavenging enzymes; Defensive mechanism of plant

Title :  Lead
Subject : Lead
Printed Year : 2019

Description : 
Title Accumulation and distribution of lead (Pb) in plant tissues of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) and sesame (Sesamum indicum L.): profitable phytoremediation with biofuel crops
Author Name Hira Amin, Basir Ahmed Arain, Taj Muhammad Jahangir, Muhammad Sadiq Abbasi & Farah Amin
Journal Name Geology, Ecology, and Landscapes
Year 2018
Volume and Issue Volume 02, January 2018
Pages 51–60
Abstracts Contamination of lead indicates one of the major threats to soil system. Phytoremediation technique utilized plants which are able to tolerate and accumulate metals within in their tissues. It has recently been suggested that biofuel plants are more suitable for both utilization and remediation of metal contaminated soil. This study reported Pb phytoremediation potential of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. in comparison with Sesamum indicum L. in the framework of a pot-experiment. Plants were subjected to seven Pb concentrations (0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mg kg-1 soil) for 12 weeks. Our results demonstrated that both C. tetragonoloba and S. indicum were able to tolerate Pb concentrations up to 1000 mg kg-1. which confirms the plant ability to grow well in higher Pb levels. Significant metal accumulation was observed in root along with reduced biomass for both plants species. Furthermore, both plant species could possibly be used for phytostabilization, with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and decontamination of Pb could be maintained at satisfying levels. However, bioconcentration factor (BCF), bioaccumulation coefficient (BAC) and translocation factor (TF) values proposed that C. tetragonoloba was more efficient for phytoremediation than S. indicum at higher Pb levels.
Keywords Soil pollution; lead; accumulation; phytoextraction; phytostablization
Title Lead (Pb) Toxicity; Physio-Biochemical Mechanisms, Grain Yield, Quality, and Pb Distribution Proportions in Scented Rice
Author Name Umair Ashraf, Adam S. Kanu, Quanquan Deng, Zhaowen Mo, Shenggang Pan, Hua Tian and Xiangru Tang
Journal Name Frontiers in Plant Science
Year 2017
Volume and Issue Volume 08, February 2017
Pages 01-17
Abstracts Lead (Pb) caused interruptions with normal plant metabolism, crop yield losses and quality issues are of great concern. This study assessed the physiobiochemical responses, yield and grain quality traits and Pb distribution proportions in three different fragrant rice cultivars i.e., Meixiangzhan-2, Xinagyaxiangzhan and Basmati-385. Plants were exposed to 400, 800, and 1,200 ppm of Pb while pots without Pb were taken as control (0 ppm). Our results showed that Pb toxicity significantly (P < 0.05) reduced photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll contents and carotenoids) and inducted oxidative stress with increased production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malanodialdehyde (MDA) and leaves leachates; while such effects were more apparent in Xinagyaxiangzhan than other two rice cultivars. Pb stress differentially affected the production protein, proline and soluble sugars; however the production rates were higher at heading stage (HS) than maturity stage (MS). Furthermore, Pb stress altered superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidases (POD), catalases (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidases (APX) activities and glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) production in all rice cultivars at both HS and MS. All Pb levels reduced the yield and yield components of all rice cultivars; nonetheless such reductions were observed highest in Xinagyaxiangzhan (69.12%) than Meixiangzhan-2 (58.05%) and Basmati-385 (46.27%) and resulted in grain quality deterioration. Significant and positive correlations among rice yields with productive tillers/pot and grains per panicle while negative with sterility percentage were also observed. In addition, all rice cultivars readily taken up the Pb contents from soil to roots and transported upward in different proportions with maximum in roots followed by stemss, leaves, ears and grains. Higher proportions of Pb contents in above ground plant parts in Xinagyaxiangzhan possibly lead to maximum losses in this cultivar than other two cultivars; while less damage in Basmati-385 might be related to strong anti-oxidative defense system and lower proportions of Pb contents in its aerial parts.
Keywords antioxidant defense; grain yield; lead; oxidative stress; scented rice; quality characters
Title Efficiency of green waste compost and biochar soil amendments for reducing lead and copper mobility and uptake to ryegrass
Author Name Nadia Karami, Rafael Clemente, Eduardo Moreno-Jiménez, Nicholas W. Lepp, Luke Beesley
Journal Name Journal of Hazardous material
Year 2011
Volume and Issue 191, 1-3
Pages 41-48
Abstracts Green waste compost and biochar amendments were assessed for their assistance in regulating the mobility of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) and the resultant uptake of these metals into vegetation. The amendments were mixed with a heavily Cu and Pb contaminated soil (600 and 21,000 mg kg−1, respectively) from a former copper mine in Cheshire (UK), on a volume basis both singly and in combination in greenhouse pot trials. Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. var. Cadix) was grown for the following 4 months during which biomass, metals in soil pore water and plant uptake were measured in three consecutive harvests. Very high Pb concentrations in pore water from untreated soil (>80 mg l−1) were reduced furthest by compost amendment (<5 mg l−1) whereas biochar was the more effective treatment at reducing pore water Cu concentrations. Duly, ryegrass shoot Cu levels were reduced and large, significant reductions in shoot Pb levels were observed after biochar and compost amendments, respectively during successive harvests. However, because green waste compost singly and in combination with biochar vividly enhanced biomass yields, harvestable amounts of Pb were only significantly reduced by the compost amendment which had reduced shoot Pb levels furthest. The low biomass of ryegrass with biochar amendment meant that this was the only amendment which did not significantly increase harvestable amounts of Cu. Therefore the two amendments have opposing metal specific suitability for treating this contaminated soil regarding whether it is a maximum reduction in plant tissue metal concentration or a maximum reduction in harvestable amount of metal that is required.
Keywords Heavy metals; Compost; Biochar; Ryegrass; Pore water; Remediation
Title Utilization of laser-assisted analytical methods for monitoring of lead and nutrition elements distribution in fresh and dried Capsicum annuum l. leaves
Author Name Michaela Galiová, Jozef Kaiser, Karel Novotný, Martin Hartl, Rene Kizek and Petr Babula
Journal Name Microscopy Research and Technique
Year 2011
Volume and Issue 74, 9
Pages 845-852
Abstracts Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) have been applied for high-resolution mapping of accumulation and distribution of heavy metal (lead) and nutrition elements (potassium, manganese) in leaves of Capsicum annuum L. samples. Lead was added in a form of Pb(NO3)2 at concentration up to 10 mmol L−1 into the vessels that contained tap water and where the 2-months old Capsicum annuum L. plants were grown another seven days. Two dimensional maps of the elements are presented for both laser-assisted analytical methods. Elemental mapping performed on fresh (frozen) and dried Capsicum annuum L. leaves are compared.
Keywords LIBS; LA-ICP-MS; elemental mapping
Title Isolation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and their potential for lead immobilization in soil
Author Name Jin Hee Park, Nanthi Bolan, Mallavarapu Megharaj, Ravi Naidu
Journal Name Journal of Hazardous material
Year 2011
Volume and Issue 185, 2-3
Pages 829-836
Abstracts Lead (Pb), a highly toxic heavy metal forms stable compounds with phosphate (P). The potential of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) to immobilize Pb by enhancing solubilization of insoluble P compounds was tested in this research. Eighteen different PSB strains isolated from P amended and Pb contaminated soils were screened for their efficiency in P solubilization. The PSB isolated from P amended soils solubilized 217–479 mg/L of P while the PSB from Pb contaminated soil solubilized 31–293 mg/L of P. Stepwise multiple regression analysis and P solubility kinetics indicated that the major mechanism of P solubilization by PSB is the pH reduction through the release of organic acids. From the isolated bacteria, two PSB were chosen for Pb immobilization and these bacteria were identified as Pantoea sp. and Enterobacter sp., respectively. The PSB significantly increased P solubilization by 25.0% and 49.9% in the case of Pantoea sp., and 63.3% and 88.6% in the case of Enterobacter sp. for 200 and 800 mg/kg of rock phosphate (RP) addition, respectively, thereby enhancing the immobilization of Pb by 8.25–13.7% in the case of Pantoea sp. and 14.7–26.4% in the case of Enterobacter sp. The ability of PSB to solubilize P, promote plant growth, and immobilize Pb can be used for phytostabilization of Pb contaminated soils.
Keywords Pb contamination; Pb immobilization; Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB); Rock phosphate; P solubilization
Title The detoxification of lead in Sedum alfredii H. is not related to phytochelatins but the glutathione
Author Name D.K. Gupta , H.G. Huang, X.E. Yang, B.H.N. Razafindrabe, M. Inouhe
Journal Name Journal of Hazardous material
Year 2010
Volume and Issue 177, 1-3
Pages 437–444
Abstracts Two ecotypes of S. alfredii [Pb accumulating (AE) and Pb nonaccumulating (NAE)] differing in their ability in accumulating Pb were exposed to different Pb levels to evaluate the effects on plant length, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzymes (SOD and APX), cysteine, non-protein thiols (NP-SH), phytochelatins (PCs) and glutathione (GSH) vis-à-vis Pb accumulation. Both ecotypes showed significant Pb accumulation in roots, however only the AE showed significant Pb accumulation in shoots. We found that both AE and NAE of S. alfredii-induced biosynthesis of GSH rather than phytochelatins in their tissue upon addition of even high Pb levels (200 μM). Root and shoot length were mostly affected in both ecotypes after addition of higher Pb concentrations and on longer durations, however photosynthetic pigments did not alter upon addition of any Pb treatment. Both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities of AE were higher than NAE. The levels of cysteine and NP-SH were also higher in AE than in NAE. Hence, the characteristic Pb accumulation of ecotypes differed presumably in relation to their capacity for detoxification of Pb. These results suggest that enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants play a key role in the detoxification of Pb-induced toxic effects in Sedum alfredii. This plant can be used as an indicator species for Pb contamination.
Keywords Ascorbate peroxidase, Glutathione, Lead, Phytochelatins, Superoxide dismutase, Sedum alfredii

Title : Copper
Subject : Copper
Printed Year : 2018

Description : 
Title Physiological and biochemical responses of Salix integraThunb. under copper stress as affected by soil flooding
Author Name Yini Cao, Chuanxin Ma, Guangcai Chen, Jianfeng Zhang, BaoshanXing
Journal Name Environmental Pollution
Year 2017
Volume and Issue 225
Pages 644-653
Abstracts To explore the joint effect of copper (Cu) and flooding on Salix integra Thunb. (S. integra), the physiological and biochemical parameters of the seedlings grown in Cu amended soil (50, 150, 450 mg kg−1) with or without the flooding for 60 days were evaluated. The results suggested that the flooding significantly inhibited the root growth in terms of root length and root tips. The Cu exposures of 50 and 150 mg kg−1 notably enhanced the root growth as compared to the control. Majority of Cu was accumulated in S. integra roots, while flooding significantly reduced the Cu content, except the 150 mg kg−1 Cu treatment, but the iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) content on the root surface were both markedly increased relative to non-flooded control. The malonaldehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) contents in leaves showed a dose-response upon Cu exposure. Soil flooding enhanced the GSH level, which displayed 4.50–49.59% increases compared to its respective non-flooded treatment, while no difference was evident on MDA contents between the flooding and the non-flooded treatments. Both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were boosted while the catalase(CAT) was suppressed with increasing Cu exposure dose, and soil flooding reduced the POD and CAT activities. The elevated Cu level caused the evident increases of root calcium (Ca), potassium(K), and sulfur (S) concentrations and decreases of root phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), and zinc (Zn) concentrations. Soil flooding increased the concentrations of Fe, S, Na, Ca, and magnesium (Mg) in S. integra root. Taken together, our results suggested S. integrahas high tolerance to the joint stress from Cu and flooding.
Keywords Willow; Copper; Flooding; Oxidative; Stress Nutrients; Phytoremediation
Title Morphophysiological, ultrastructural, and nutritional changes induced by Cu toxicity in young Erythrina fusca plants
Author Name Vania L. Souza, Alex-Alan F. de Almeida, Pedro A. O.Mangabeira, Delmira da C. Silva, Raildo M. de Jesus & Raúl René Valle
Journal Name International Journal of Phytoremediation
Year 2017
Volume and Issue 19, (7)
Pages 621–631
Abstracts Erythrina fusca is an important legume used for shade cover in cacao plantations in Brazil. Cacao plantations receive large quantities of copper (Cu)-containing agrochemicals, mainly for control of diseases. Therefore, Cu toxicity was investigated in seedlings grown in hydroponics with increasing concentrations of Cu (0.005-32 mg L-1) in a greenhouse. Ultrastructural analyses showed cell plasmolysis in the root cortical area and changes in thylakoid membranes at 8 mg Cu L-1 and higher. There were changes in epicuticular wax deposition on the leaf surface at the 16 and 32 mg Cu L-1 treatments. Leaf gas exchanges were highly affected 24 hours after application of treatments beginning at 8 mg Cu L-1 and higher Cu concentrations. Chemical analyses showed that Cu content in E. fusca roots increased as Cu concentration in the nutrient solution increased, whereas the shoot did not show significant changes. It is also observed that excess Cu interfered with Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, K, P, and Ca content in the different E. fusca organs. Investigation of Cu toxicity symptoms focusing on morphophysiological, ultrastructural, gas exchange, and nutritional changes would be useful to alleviate Cu toxicity in E. fusca under field conditions, an important agroforestry species in cacao plantation.
Keywords heavy metal; photosynthesis; shade cover species
Title Comprehensive Analysis of Rice Laccase Gene (OsLAC) family and Ectopic Expression of OsLac 10 Enhances Tolerance to copper stress in Arabidopsis
Author Name Qingquan Liu, Le Luo, Xiaoxiao Wang, Zhengo Shen and Luqing Zheng
Journal Name Int. J. Mol. Sci
Year 2017
Volume and Issue 18, (2)
Pages 1-16
Abstracts Laccases are encoded by a multigene family and widely distributed in plant genomes where they play roles oxidizing monolignols to produce higher-order lignin involved in plant development and stress responses. We identified 30 laccase genes (OsLACs) from rice, which can be divided into five subfamilies, mostly expressed during early development of the endosperm, growing roots, and stems. OsLACs can be induced by hormones, salt, drought, and heavy metals stresses. The expression level of OsLAC10 increased 1200-fold after treatment with 20 μM Cu for 12 h. The laccase activities of OsLAC10 were confirmed in an Escherichia coli expression system. Lignin accumulation increased in the roots of Arabidopsis overexpressing OsLAC10 (OsLAC10-OX) compared to wildtype controls. After growth on 1/2 Murashige and Skoog(MS) medium containing toxic levels of Cu for seven days, roots of the OsLAC10-OX lines were significantly longer than those of the wild type. Compared to control plants, the Cu concentration decreased significantly in roots of the OsLAC10-OX line under hydroponic conditions. These results provided insights into the evolutionary expansion and functional divergence of OsLAC family. In addition, OsLAC10 is likely involved in lignin biosynthesis, and reduces the uptake of Cu into roots required for Arabidopsis to develop tolerance to Cu.
Keywords Rice; Laccase; OsLAC 10; Copper Tolerance; Copper uptake; Arabidopsis
Title Copper (Cu) stress affects carbon and antioxidant metabolism in Coffea arabica seedling
Author Name dos Santos, Jacqueline Oliveria, de Faria, Marico Espinosa, da Silva, Dayane Meireles, de Oliveria Silveria, Helbert Rezende, Campos, Cleide Nascimento, Alves Jose Donizeti
Journal Name Australian Journal of Crop Science
Year 2017
Volume and Issue 11,(8)
Pages 960-967
Abstracts Although copper is a micronutrient essential for the normal development of plants, both insufficient and supra optimal doses can disrupt the functioning of metabolism and the production of biomass. To study the biochemical and physiological impacts of deficiency and excess of copper in coffee, we treated 6- month-old seedlings of Coffea arabica L. Catua cultivar to three copper treatments: control (0.03 ppm), excess (0.12 ppm) and deficiency (0 ppm) for 60 days. The changes in levels of photosynthetic pigments, biomass allocation, carbohydrate partitioning, antioxidant system and proline levels were evaluated. Under deficiency and excess of copper coffee seedlings showed lower levels of chlorophyll, reduction on dry weight of shoot, lower sugar levels and higher content of hydrogen peroxide. We also observed increased levels of proline and enzymatic activity of the antioxidant system, providing conditions for the reduction of oxidative stress triggered by nutritional imbalance. In general, the results showed that coffee plants invest in antioxidant defense system as an alternative to maintain redox balance when exposed to deficiency or excess copper. However, it is not effective to prevent an increase in lipid peroxidation. Authors may indicate an optimum range for application of copper in coffee.
Keywords Antioxidant system; Proline; Carbohydrate
Title The Effect of Copper on Plant Regeneration in Barley Microspore Culture
Author Name Katarzyna Makowska, Sylwia Oleszczuk and Janusz zimny
Journal Name Czech J. Genet. Plant Breed
Year 2017
Volume and Issue 53, (1)
Pages 17–22
Abstracts Isolated microspore culture is an excellent system for the production of doubled haploids in many crops, including barley. In a more traditional barley anther culture method copper sulphate is known to enhance plant regeneration. Here we report that one hundred times higher concentration of copper sulphate in the isolated microspore culture of two spring barley genotypes compared to the standard content in the induction medium resulted in a 34% increase of total plant regeneration. Detailed analysis of plant regeneration showed that additional supplementation of copper sulphate increased not only the regeneration of green plants but also proportionately that of albino plants. Hence, the results from two studied genotypes do not support an assumption that the addition of copper reduces albinism in barley microspore culture.
Keywords albinism; androgenesis; doubled haploid; Hordeum vulgare; regenaration efficiency
Title Anatomical peculiarities in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varities under copper stress
Author Name Saule Atabayeva1, Akmara nurmahanova , Aygul Akhmetova , Meyramkul Narmuratova , Saltanat Asrandina , Aizhan Beisenova , Ravilya Alybayeva and Tamara Lee
Journal Name Pak. J. Bot
Year 2016
Volume and Issue 48,(4)
Pages 1399-1405
Abstracts The effect of different concentrations (0.25 mM, 0.5 mM) of Cu2+ on anatomical parameters of leaves and roots was investigated in hydroponically grown five wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties (Kazakhstanskaya rannaya, Kazakhstanskaya-3, Melturn, Kaiyr and Shagala). The results showed that wheat varieties exposed to 0.5 mM Cu2+ exhibited significant alterations in anatomical structure of leaves and roots. The thickness of the upper and lower epidermis, diameter of vascular bundles of leaves of almost all varieties showed a tendency to decrease under copper stress. Our experiments showed an activation of defense responses in the root anatomical structure like exodermis thickening in some varieties in the presence of copper in growth medium as compared to the control. This indicates that copper ions increase the thickness of exodermis, which reduce the absorption of toxic elements by root cells. Copper stress caused a decrease in the thickness of the lower and upper epidermis to varying degrees and reduction in the diameter of vascular bundles of wheat leaves. Copper stress caused a reduction in endodermis thickness thereby decreasing the diameter of the central cylinder of wheat roots.
Keywords Wheat, Copper, Anatomical structure, Exodermis, Endodermis, Vascular bundles, Central cylinder.
Title Effects of copper-induced stress on seed germination of Maize (Zea Mays L.)
Author Name Boroş Melania-Nicoleta, V. Micle
Journal Name Agriculture - Science and Practice
Year 2015
Volume and Issue 95
Pages 17-23
Abstracts The existence of heavy metals in polluted soils requires remediation technologies that can solve the problem of contamination in an environmentally friendly way. Plants used in phytoremediation projects can clean the contaminated areas and can become a solution for green approaches to this issue. One of the plants with great potential in phytoremediation is Zea mays, a very common crop plant. This experiment aimed to determine the effect of the variation in concentration of copper sulphate on the germination and growth of seeds of Zea mays. We wanted to establish which is the highest concentration of copper that seeds of Zea mays can tolerate. Seedlings growth investigation and measurements were made after 7 days. The seed germination rate was high for the low concentration and control and decreased dramatically with the increase in concentration. At high concentration the abnormal development of seeds was visible, shoots and roots growing much shorter.
Keywords Copper stress; Crop plant; Seed germination; Zea mays
Title Evaluating wild grapevine tolerance to copper toxicity
Author Name J. Cambrollé, J.L. García , M.E. Figueroa, M. Cantos
Journal Name Chemosphere
Year 2015
Volume and Issue 120
Pages 171 - 178
Abstracts We evaluate copper tolerance and accumulation in Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris in populations from a copper contaminated site and an uncontaminated site, and in the grapevine rootstock “41B”, investigating the effects of copper (0–23 mM) on growth, photosynthetic performance and mineral nutrient content. The highest Cu treatment induced nutrient imbalances and inhibited photosynthetic function, causing a drastic reduction in growth in the three study plants. Effective concentration was higher than 23 mM Cu in the wild grapevines and around 9 mM in the “41B” plants. The wild grapevine accessions studied controlled root Cu concentration more efficiently than is the case with the “41B” rootstock and must be considered Cu-tolerant. Wild grapevines from the Cu-contaminated site present certain physiological characteristics that make them relatively more suitable for exploitation in the genetic improvement of vines against conditions of excess Cu, compared to wild grapevine populations from uncontaminated sites.
Keywords Copper; Tolerance; Toxicity; Wild grapevine
Title The effect of excess copper on growth and physiology of important food crops: a review
Author Name Muhammad Adrees, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Ibrahim, Farhat Abbas, Mujahid Farid, Muhammad Zia-ur-Rehman, Muhammad Kashif Irshad, Saima Aslam Bharwana
Journal Name Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Year 2015
Volume and Issue 22
Pages 8148 – 8162
Abstracts In recent years, copper (Cu) pollution in agricultur- al soils, due to arbitrary use of pesticides, fungicides, indus- trial effluent and wastewater irrigation, present a major con-cern for sustainable agrifood production especially in developing countries. The world’s major food requirement is fulfilled through agricultural food crops. The Cu-induced losses in growth and yield of food crops probably exceeds from all other causes of food safety and security threats. Here, we review the adverse effects of Cu excess on growth and yield of essential food crops. Numerous studies reported the Cu-induced growth inhibition, oxidative damage and antioxidant response in agricultural food crops such as wheat, rice, maize, sunflower and cucumber. This article also describes the toxic levels of Cu in crops that decreased plant growth and yield due to alterations in mineral nutrition, photosynthesis, enzyme ac- tivities and decrease in chlorophyll biosynthesis. The response of various crops to elevated Cu concentrations varies depend- ing upon nature of crop and cultivars used. This review could be helpful to understand the Cu toxicity and the mechanism of its tolerance in food crops. We recommend that Cu-tolerant crops should be grown on Cu-contaminated soils in order to ameliorate the toxic effects for sustainable farming systems and to meet the food demands of the intensively increasing population.
Keywords Copper; Growth; Mineral nutrition; Photosynthesis; Yield
Title Experimental determinations of soil copper toxicity to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) growth in highly different copper spiked and aged soils
Author Name Karen S. Christiansen, Ole K. Borggaard, Peter E. Holm, Martina G. Vijver, Michael Z. Hauschild, Willie J. G. M. Peijnenburg
Journal Name Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Year 2014
Volume and Issue 22
Pages 5283–5292
Abstracts Accurate knowledge about factors and conditions determining copper (Cu) toxicity in soil is needed for predicting plant growth in various Cu-contaminated soils. Therefore, effects of Cu on growth (biomass production) of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were tested on seven selected, very different soils spiked with Cu and aged for 2 months at 35°C. Cu toxicity was expressed as pEC50 (Cu2+), i.e., the negative logarithm of the EC50(Cu2+) activity to plant growth. The determined pEC 50(Cu2+) was significantly and positively cor- related with both the analytically readily available soil pH and concentration of dissolved organic carbon [DOC] which to- gether could explain 87 % of the pEC50(Cu2+) variation ac-cording to the simple equation: pEC50 (Cu2+)=0.98×pH+ 345×[DOC]−0.27. Other soil characteristics, including the base cation concentrations (Na+, K +,Ca2+, Mg2+), the cation exchange capacity at soil pH (ECEC), and at pH 7 (CEC7), soil organic carbon, clay content, and electric conductivity as well as the distribution coefficient (Kd) calculated as the ratio between total soil Cu and water-extractable Cu did not corre- late significantly with pEC50(Cu2+). Consequently, Cu toxicity, expressed as the negative log of the Cu2+ activity, to plant growth increases at increasing pH and DOC, which needs to be considered in future management of plant growth on Cu- contaminated soils. The developed regression equation allows identification of soil types in which the phytotoxicity potential of Cu is highest.
Keywords Cu; DOC; pH; EC50; Soilcontamination; LCA
Title Copper toxicity in Chinese cabbage is not influenced by plant sulphur status, but affects sulphur metabolism-related gene expression and the suggested regulatory metabolites
Author Name M. Shahbaz, C. E. E. Stuiver, F. S. Posthumus, S. Parmar, M. J. Hawkesford and L. J. De Kok
Journal Name Plant biology
Year 2014
Volume and Issue 16, 1
Pages 68–78
Abstracts The toxicity of high copper (Cu) concentrations in the root environment of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) was little influenced by the sulphur nutritional status of the plant. However, Cu toxicity removed the correlation between sulphur metabolismrelated gene expression and the suggested regulatory metabolites. At high tissue Cu levels, there was no relation between sulphur metabolite levels viz. total sulphur, sulphate and water-soluble non-protein thiols, and the expression and activity of sulphate transporters and expression of APS reductase under sulphatesufficient or-deprived conditions, in the presence or absence of H2S. This indicated that the regulatory signal transduction pathway of sulphate transporters was overruled or by-passed upon exposure to elevated Cu concentrations.
Keywords Abiotic stress; APS reductase; H2S, heavy metals; sulphate deprivation; sulphate reduction; sulphate transporters; sulphur assimilation; thiol compounds
Title Exogenous sodium nitroprusside and glutathione alleviate copper toxicity by reducing copper uptake and oxidative damage in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings
Author Name Mohammad Golam Mostofa, Zeba Islam Seraj, Masayuki Fujita
Journal Name Protoplasma
Year 2014
Volume and Issue 251
Pages 1373 – 1386
Abstracts Nitric oxide (NO) and glutathione (GSH) regulate a variety of physiological processes and stress responses; how- ever, their involvement in mitigating Cu toxicity in plants has not been extensively studied. This study investigated the interactive effect of exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and GSH on Cu homeostasis and Cu-induced oxidative dam-age in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 12-day-old seed- lings were subjected to 100μ MCuSO4 alone and in combination with 200μ M SNP (an NO donor) and 200μ MGSH. Cu exposure for 48 h resulted in toxicity symptoms such asstunted growth, chlorosis, and rolling in leaves. Cu toxicity was also manifested by a sharp increase in lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, lipid peroxidation (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), proline (Pro) content, and rapid reductions in bio-mass, chlorophyll (Chl), and relative water content (RWC). Cu-caused oxidative stress was evident by overaccumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS; superoxide (O2•–)and H2O2). Ascorbate (AsA) content decreased while GSH and phytochelatin (PC) content increased significantly in Custressed seedlings. Exogenous SNP, GSH, or SNP+GSH decreased toxicity symptoms and diminished a Cu-induced increase in LOX activity, O2•–, H2O2, MDA, and Pro content.They also counteracted a Cu-induced increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), and glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II activities, which paralleled changes in ROS and MDA levels. These seedlings also showed a significant increase in catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), dehydroascorbate re- ductase (DHAR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, and AsA and PC content compared with the seedlings stressed with Cu alone.
Keywords Cu toxicity; Oxidative stress; Nitric oxide; Glutathione; Antioxidant system; Cu homeostasis

Title : Cadmium
Subject : Cadmium
Printed Year : 2018

Description : 
Title Sulfide alleviates cadmium toxicity in Arabidopsis plants by altering the chemical form and the subcellular distribution of cadmium
Author Name Mei Yan, Guan, Hai Hua Zhang, Wei Pan, Chong Wei Jin, Xian Yong Lin
Journal Name Science of The Total Environment
Year 2018
Volume and Issue Volume 627
Pages 663-670
Abstracts Several sulfur compounds are thought to play important roles in the plant tolerance to cadmium (Cd), but the role of inorganic sulfide in Cd tolerance remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that Cd exposure increased the accumulation of soluble sulfide in Arabidopsis plants. When exogenous sulfide, in the form of NaHS, was foliarly applied, Cd-induced growth inhibition and oxidative stress were alleviated. In addition, although the foliar application of sulfide did not affect the total Cd levels, it significantly decreased the soluble Cd fractions in plants. Furthermore, foliar applications of sulfide decreased Cd distribution in the cytoplasm and organelles, but increased Cd retention in the cell wall, which is a less sensitive compartment. These results suggest that the Cd-induced accumulation of soluble sulfide alleviates Cd toxicity in plants by inactivating Cd and sequestering it into the cell wall.
Keywords Arabidopsis thaliana; Cadmium; Sulfide; Cadmium tolerance
Title Selenium mitigates cadmium-induced oxidative stress in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants by modulating chlorophyll fluorescence, osmolyte accumulation, and antioxidant system.
Author Name Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Mohammad Abass Ahanger, Leonard Wijaya, Pravej Alam, Renu Bhardwaj, Parvaiz Ahmad
Journal Name Protoplasma
Year 2017
Volume and Issue  
Pages 1-11
Abstracts Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the role of selenium in alleviating cadmium stress in Solanum lycopersicum seedlings. Cadmium (150 mg L-1) treatment caused a significant reduction in growth in terms of height and biomass accumulation and affected chlorophyll pigments, gas exchange parameters, and chlorophyll fluorescence. Selenium (10 µM) application mitigated the adverse effects of cadmium on growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, leaf relative water content, and other physiological attributes. Lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage increased because of cadmium treatment and selenium-treated plants exhibited considerable reduction because of the decreased production of hydrogen peroxide in them. Cadmium-treated plants exhibited enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes that protected cellular structures by neutralizing reactive free radicals. Supplementation of selenium to cadmium-treated plants (Cd + Se) further enhanced the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) by 19.69, 31.68, 33.14, and 54.47%, respectively. Osmolytes, including proline and glycine betaine, increased with selenium application, illustrating their role in improving the osmotic stability of S.lycopersicum under cadmium stress. More importantly, selenium application significantly reduced cadmium uptake. From these results, it is clear that application of selenium alleviates the negative effects of cadmium stress in S.lycopersicum through the modifications of osmolytes and antioxidant enzymes.
Keywords Solanum lycopersicum; Cadmium; Growth; Chlorophyll fluorescence; Proline; Lipid peroxidation; Antioxidants; Selenium
Title Uptake, sequestration and tolerance of Cadmium at cellular levels in the hyperaccumulator plant species Sedum alfredii
Author Name Shengke Tian Ruohan Xie Haixin Wang Yan Hu Dandi Hou Xingcheng LiaoPatrick H. Brown Hongxia Yang Xianyong Lin John M. Labavitch
Journal Name Journal of Experimental Botany
Year 2017
Volume and Issue 68 Issue 9
Pages 2387-2398
Abstracts Sedum alfredii is one of a few plant species known to hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd). Uptake, localization, and tolerance of Cd at cellular levels in shoots were compared in hyperaccumulating (HE) and nonhyperaccumulating (NHE) ecotypes of Sedum alfredii. X-ray fluorescence images of Cd in stems and leaves showed only a slight Cd signal restricted within vascular bundles in the NHEs, while enhanced localization of Cd, with significant tissue- and age-dependent variations, was detected in HEs. In contrast to the vascular-enriched Cd in young stems, parenchyma cells in leaf mesophyll, stem pith and cortex tissues served as terminal storage sites for Cd sequestration in HEs. Kinetics of Cd transport into individual leaf protoplasts of the two ecotypes showed little difference in Cd accumulation. However, far more efficient storage of Cd in vacuoles was apparent in HEs. Subsequent analysis of cell viability and hydrogen peroxide levels suggested that HE protoplasts exhibited higher resistance to Cd than those of NHE protoplasts. These results suggest that efficient sequestration into vacuoles, as opposed to rapid transport into parenchyma cells, is a pivotal process in Cd accumulation and homeostasis in shoots of HE S. alfredii. This is in addition to its efficient root-to-shoot translocation of Cd.
Keywords Cadmium; Fluorescence microscopy; localized; micro X-ray fluorescence; protoplasts; tolerance; Vacuole
Title Salicylic acid-induced protection against cadmium toxicity in wheat plants
Author Name F.M.Shakirova, Ch.R.Allagulova, D.R.Maslennikova, E.O.Klyuchnikova, A.M.Avalbaev, M.V.Bezrukova
Journal Name Environmental and Experimental Botany
Year 2016
Volume and Issue Volume 122
Pages 19-28
Abstracts We have studied the influence of pretreatment of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) with 50 μM salicylic acid (SA) on plant resistance to subsequent action of 1 mM cadmium acetate. SA pretreatment decreased the extent of detrimental effect of cadmium on wheat plants, as judged by the decline in the level of stress-induced accumulation of MDA and electrolyte leakage. Furthermore, SA-pretreatment contributed to maintenance of growth characteristics of wheat seedlings at the level close to the control under stress conditions and to acceleration of growth recovery during post-stress period. Detected defense effect of SA may be due to a decline in the amplitude of cadmium-induced accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) and to reduced fall of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and cytokinins (CK) in stressed plants. In the course of one day treatment, SA activated phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), the key enzyme of lignin biosynthesis, in roots of seedlings under normal growth conditions contributing to the strengthening of carrier functions of cell walls. This assumption is supported by the data showing significant decline in cadmium accumulation in SA-pretreated Detected defense effect of SA may be due to a decline in the amplitude of cadmium-induced accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) and to reduced fall of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and cytokinins (CK) in stressed plants. In the course of one day treatment, SA activated phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), the key enzyme of lignin biosynthesis, in roots of seedlings under normal growth conditions contributing to the strengthening of carrier functions of cell walls. This assumption is supported by the data showing significant decline in cadmium accumulation in SA-pretreated
Keywords Abscisic acid; Cadmium stress; Dehydrins; Hormonal balance; Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; Lignin deposition; Plant growth; Salicylic acid Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Title Modulation and significance of nitrogen and sulfur metabolism in cadmium challenged plants
Author Name M. Iqbal R. Khan, Noushina Iqbal, Asim Masood, Mohammad Mobin, Naser A. Anjum
Journal Name Plant Growth Regulation
Year 2016
Volume and Issue 78, Issue1
Pages 1–11
Abstracts As a result of rapidly increasing anthropogenic activities, input of varied metal (loids) such as cadmium (Cd) to worldwide agricultural soils and its subsequent accumulation, and obvious toxicity in plants are increasing. The role of mineral nutrients in the mitigation of Cd-accrued consequences in plants has been credibly suggested. In isolated studies, two essential mineral nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) have been reported to minimize Cdimpacts in plants, and improve overall plant growth, metabolism and productivity under Cd-exposure. However, the information on the significance of N and S metabolism, and also on cross-talks on the coordination therein in Cd-challenged plants is lacking. Given the highlighted lacunae, in the light of recent research outcomes, the present review attempts to: (a) overview Cd in soil, and its major toxicity and mitigation avenues in plants, (b) appraise Cd-mediated modulation of N and S metabolism, (c) summarize the role of exogenouslysourced N and S for the mitigation of Cd toxicity, (d) critically discuss the significance of coordination between N and S metabolism for Cd-impactmitigation, and finally to (e) highlight the major aspects to explore in the current context. The literature appraised herein suggests that a fine coordination among major pathways of N and S assimilation can enhance defense metabolites and enzymes that in turn can strengthen overall defense system, and efficiently mitigate Cd-impacts in plants. However, efforts are required to get more insights into the mechanism(s) of (co)regulation of sulfate and nitrate assimilation at the molecular level. Additionally, molecular approaches should be narrowed to enhance the production of thiols, and their products in plants through manipulating major enzymes involved in sulfate and nitrate assimilation in plants under Cd-challenged environment.
Keywords Cadmium-phytotoxicity; Nitrogen metabolism; Sulfur metabolism; Plant-cadmium tolerance
Title Effects of Exogenous Spermidine on Cell Wall Composition and Carbohydrate Metabolism of Marsilea Plants under Cadmium Stress
Author Name Kingsuk Das, Chiranjib Mandal, Nirmalya Ghosh, Sidhartha Banerjee, Narottam Dey and Malay Kumar Adak
Journal Name J Plant Physiol Pathol
Year 2014
Volume and Issue 2 Issue 3
Abstracts In an experiment to detect the cellular changes of carbohydrate content and its related enzymatic activities, a study was undertaken with Marsilea minuta L., an aquatic fern species in simulated condition of cadmium (Cd) toxicity. From the varying doses of Cd (0, 50, 100 and 200 μM) and supplemented with spermidine (2mM), it revealed that plants were suffered from accumulation of total carbohydrate in a dose-dependent manner under Cd stress. Maximum depletion of carbohydrate content was 58% with respect to control which was retrieved by 1.42 fold with spermidine application. In a similar manner, plants were also affected with starch, total reducing sugar content by 42% and 63.04% respectively over the control. The fall in both starch and total reducing sugar were retrieved by plants by 1.32 fold and 1.52 fold, respectively
Keywords Marsilea minuta; Cadmium; Carbohydrate metabolism; Amylase
Title Cadmium Toxicity in Plants and Role of Mineral Nutrients in Its Alleviation
Author Name Rahat Nazar, Noushina Iqbal, Asim Masood, M.Iqbal R. Khan, Shabina Syeed, Nafees A. Khan
Journal Name American Journal of Plant Sciences
Year 2012
Volume and Issue 3
Pages 1476-1489
Abstracts Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that enters the environment through various anthropogenic sources, and inhibits plant growth and development. Cadmium toxicity may result from disturbance in plant metabolism as a consequence of disturbance in the uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients. Plant nutrients and Cd compete for the same transport-ers and, therefore, presence of Cd results in mineral nutrients deficiency. The optimization of mineral nutrients under Cd stress could reduce Cd toxicity by greater availability at the transport site resulting in reduced accumulation of Cd, and could also alleviate Cd-induced toxic effects by enhancing biochemical reactions and physiological processes in plants. In the present review the role of plant macro, micro and beneficial elements in alleviating Cd stress in crop plants is discussed.
Keywords Antioxidant Enzymes; Cadmium Toxicity; Mineral Nutrition; Oxidative Stress
Title Unravelling cadmium toxicity and tolerance in plants: Insight into regulatory mechanisms
Author Name Susana M. Gallego, Liliana B. Penaa,b, Roberto A. Barciaa, Claudia E. Azpilicueta, Maria F. Iannonea, Eliana P. Rosalesa, Myriam S.Zawoznika, Maria D. Groppa, Maria P.Benavides
Journal Name Environmental and experimental botany
Year 2012
Volume and Issue 83
Pages 33–46
Abstracts The occurrence of heavy metals in soils may be beneficial or toxic to the environment. The biota may require some of these elements considered essentials (like Fe, Zn, Cu or Mo) in trace quantities, but at higher concentrations they may be poisonous. Due to the difficulty in controlling environmental metal accumulation, organisms have to cope with exposure to unwanted chemical elements, specially those considered biologically nonessential. Cadmium (Cd) belongs to this latter group. The effect of Cd toxicity on plants has been largely explored regarding inhibition of growth processes and decrease of photosynthetic apparatus activity. This article reviews current knowledge of uptake, transport and accumulation of Cd in plants and gives an overview of Cddetoxification mechanisms, Cd-induced oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in plants. It also presents a picture of the role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in Cd toxicity; signalling and gene regulation are topics critically discussed.
Keywords Cadmium; Heavy metals; Oxidative stress; Metal toxicity; Signalling; Gene regulation
Title Oxidative post translational modifications of proteins related to cell cycle are involved in cadmium toxicity in wheat seedlings
Author Name Liliana B. Pena, Roberto A. Barcia, Claudia E. Azpilicueta, Andrea A.E. Méndez, Susana M. Gallego
Journal Name Plant Science
Year 2012
Volume and Issue 196
Pages 1-7
Abstracts Abiotic stress is greatly associated with plant growth inhibition and redox cell imbalance. In the present work, we have investigated in which way oxidative posttranslational modifications (PTM) of proteins related to cell cycle may be implicated in post-germinative root growth reduction caused by cadmium, by methyl viologen (MV) and byhydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in wheat seedlings. Although cadmium is considered a redox inactive metal, reactive oxygen species were detected in the apex root of metal-treated seedlings. Oxidative stress hastened cells displacement from the cell division zone to elongation/differentiation zone, resulting in a shortened meristem. The number of cells in the proliferation zone was lower after MV, H2O2 and 10 μM Cd2+ treatments compared to control. All treatments increased protein carbonylation. Although no modification in total Ub-conjugated proteins was detected, oxidative treatments reduced cyclin D and CDKA protein ubiquitination, concomitantly with a decrease in expression of cyclin D/CDKA/Rb/E2F-regulated genes
Keywords Cadmium; Cell cycle; Oxidative stress; Triticum aestivum; Root growth inhibition
Title Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mediate cadmium toxicity to an emergent wetland species
Author Name Zhenhua Zhang, Zed Rengel, Kathy Meney, Ljiljana Pantelic, Radmila Tomanovic
Journal Name Journal of Hazardous Materials
Year 2011
Volume and Issue 189, 1 -2
Pages 119-126
Abstracts Growth and pollutant removal by emergent wetland plants may be influenced by interactions among mixed pollutants in constructed wetlands. A glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate interactive effects of cadmium (Cd) × polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) × plant treatments on growth of Juncus subsecundus, Cd and PAH removal from soil and the total number of microorganisms in soil. Growth and biomass of J. subsecundus were significantly influenced by interaction of Cd and PAHs, significantly decreasing with either Cd or PAH additions, but with the effect of Cd on plant growth being stronger than that of PAHs. The mixture of low Cd and low PAH lessened Cd toxicity to plants, resulting in improved plant growth and increased Cd accumulation in plant tissues, thus enhancing Cd removal by plants. The dissipation of PAHs in soils was significantly influenced by interactions of Cd, PAH and plant presence or absence. The total number of microorganisms in soils was significantly increased by the PAH additions. The interactive effect of Cd and PAHs on plant growth may be linked to the changes in the abundance of microorganisms in the rhizosphere, probably via a positive effect of PAH metabolites and/or phytohormones produced by microorganisms on plant growth.
Keywords Co-contamination; Constructed wetland; Juncus subsecundus; Metal; Organic pollutant; Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons
Title Interactions of zinc and cadmium toxicity in their effects on growth and in antioxidative systems in tomato plants (Solarium lycopersicum)
Author Name Jaouhra Cherif, Chamseddine Mediouni, Wided Ben Ammar, Fatma Jemal
Journal Name Journal of Environmental science
Year 2011
Volume and Issue 23, 5
Pages 837-844
Abstracts The interaction between zinc and cadmium was investigated in tomato plants (Solarium lycopersicum). Ten-day-old seedlings were treated with 10 μmol/L CdCl2 associated to different concentrations of ZnCl2(10, 50, 100, and 150 μmol/L). Zn supply clearly reduced Cd accumulation in leaves and simultaneously increased Zn concentration. Cd induced oxidative stress in leaves as indicated by an increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level and chlorophyll breakdown. Furthermore, compared with control, Cd-treated plants had significantly higher activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC, whereas, catalase (CAT, EC, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC, and glutathione reductase (GR, EC activities were significantly suppressed by Cd addition. Zn supplementation, at low level, restored and enhanced the functional activity of these enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX and GR) as compared to Cd-alone-treated plants. The beneficial effect of adequate Zn level on Cd toxicity was confirmed by a significant decrease in TBARS level and restoration of chlorophyll content. However, when Zn was added at high level in combination with Cd there was an accumulation of oxidative stress, which was higher than that for Cd or excess Zn alone treatments. These results suggested that higher Zn concentrations and Cd are synergistic in their effect on plant growth parameters and oxidative stress.
Keywords Solarium lycopersicum; cadmium; zinc; oxidative stress; antagonism; synergism

Title : Chromium
Subject : Chromium
Printed Year : 2018

Description : 
Title Chromium(VI) Toxicity in Legume Plants: Modulation Effects of Rhizobial Symbiosis
Author Name Uliana Ya Stambulska, Maria M. Bayliak, and Volodymyr I. Lushchak
Journal Name BioMed Research International
Year 2018
Volume and Issue Volume 2018, Article ID 8031213
Pages 13 pages
Abstracts Most legume species have the ability to establish a symbiotic relationship with soil nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria that promote plant growth and productivity. There is an increasing evidence of reactive oxygen species(ROS) important role in formation of legume-rhizobium symbiosis and nodule functioning. Environmental pollutants such as chromium compounds can cause damage to rhizobia, legumes, and their symbiosis. In plants, toxic effects of chromium(VI) compounds are associated with the increased production of ROS and oxidative stress development as well as with inhibition of pigment synthesis and modification of virtually all cellular components. These metabolic changes result in inhibition of seed germination and seedling development as well as reduction of plant biomass and crop yield. However, if plants establish symbiosis with rhizobia, heavy metals are accumulated preferentially in nodules decreasing the toxicity of metals to the host plant. This review summarizes data on toxic effects of chromium on legume plants and legume-rhizobium symbiosis. In addition, we discussed the role of oxidative stress in both chromium toxicity and formation of rhizobial symbiosis and use of nodule bacteria for minimizing toxic effects of chromium on plants.
Keywords chromium; environmental pollutants; legume; rhizobia; heavy metals
Title Chromium tolerance, bioaccumulation and localization in plants: An overview
Author Name Vibha Sinha, Kannan Pakshirajan, Rakhi Chaturvedi
Journal Name Journal of Environmental Management
Year 2018
Volume and Issue Volume 206
Pages 715-730
Abstracts In the current industrial scenario, chromium (Cr) as a metal is of great importance, but poses a major threat to the environment. Phytoremediation provides an environmentally sustainable, ecofriendly, cost effective approach for environmental cleanup of Cr. This review presents the current status of phytoremediation research with particular emphasis on cleanup of Cr contaminated soil and water systems. It gives a detailed account of the work done by different authors on the Cr bioavailability, uptake pathway, toxicity and storage in plants following the phytoextraction mechanism. This paper also describes recent findings related to Cr localization in hyperaccumulator plants. It gives an insight into the processes and mechanisms that allow plants to remove Cr from contaminated sites under varying conditions. These detailed knowledge of changes in plant metabolic pool in response to Cr stress would immensely help understand and improve the phytoextraction process. Further, this review provides a detailed understanding of Cr uptake and detoxification mechanism by plants that can be applied in developing a suitable approach for a better applicability of the process.
Keywords Cr; Phytoremediation; Hyperaccumulator; Metal stress; Uptake mechanism
Title Biomonitoring chromium III or VI soluble pollution by moss chlorophyll fluorescence
Author Name Yang-ErChena, Hao-Tian Mao, Jie Ma, Nan Wu, Chao-Ming Zhang, YanQiu Su, Zhong-Wei Zhang, Ming Yuan, Huai-Yu Zhang, Xian-Yin Zeng, ShuYuan
Journal Name Chemosphere
Year 2018
Volume and Issue Volume 194
Pages 220-228
Abstracts We systematically compared the impacts of four Cr salts (chromic chloride, chromic nitrate, potassium chromate and potassium bichromate) on physiological parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence in indigenous moss Taxiphyllum taxirameum. Among the four Cr salts, K2Cr2O7 treatment resulted in the most significant decrease in photosynthetic efficiency and antioxidant enzymes, increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), and obvious cell death. Different form the higher plants, although hexavalent Cr(VI) salt treatments resulted in higher accumulation levels of Cr and were more toxic than Cr(III) salts, Cr(III) also induced significant changes in moss physiological parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence. Our results showed that Cr(III) and Cr(VI) could be monitored distinguishably according to the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) fluorescence of sporadic purple and sporadic lavender images respectively. Then, the valence states and concentrations of Cr contaminations could be evaluated according to the image of maximum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and the quantum yield of PSII electron transport (ΦPSII). Therefore, this study provides new ideas of moss's sensibility to Cr(III) and a new method to monitor Chromium contaminations rapidly and non-invasively in water.
Keywords Chromium, Antioxidants; Chlorophyll fluorescence; Moss; Oxidative stress
Title Removal of Chromium from Soils Cultivated with Maize (Zea Mays) After the Addition of Natural Minerals as Soil Amendments
Author Name A. Μolla, Z. Ioannou, S. Mollas, E. Skoufogianni & A. Dimirkou
Journal Name Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Year 2017
Volume and Issue 98, Issue 3
Pages 347-352
Abstracts The efficiency of natural minerals, i.e. zeolite, bentonite and goethite, regarding the retention of chromium, from maize was examined. Specifically, 1.0 kg of soil, 1.0 g of soil amendment and either 50 mg L−1 Cr(III) or 1 mg L−1 Cr(VI) were added in plant pots. Then, seeds of maize were cultivated. Each treatment was repeated three times. The statistical results of the experiments were analyzed by LSD test. Cr(III) addition in soil has shown that zeolite was the only amendment that increased the dry weight. Zeolite and bentonite reduced significantly the total chromium in plants after the addition of 50 mg L−1 Cr(III). The addition of Cr(VI) in soil has shown that bentonite was the only amendment that increased the dry weight of biomass and the plants’ height. All soil amendments reduced to zero the total chromium concentration measured to plants after the addition of 1 mg L−1 Cr(VI).
Keywords Zeolite; Bentonite; Goethite; Maize; Soil amendments
Title Isolation of indigenous Staphylococcus sciuri from chromiumcontaminated paddy field and its application for reduction of Cr(VI) in rice plants cultivated in pots
Author Name Avishek Dutta, Sayanti Ghosh, Jayanta D. Choudhury, Riddhi Mahansaria, Malancha Roy, Asish Kumar Ghosh, Tarit Roychowdhury & Joydeep Mukherjee
Journal Name Bioremediation Journal
Year 2017
Volume and Issue 21, Issue1
Pages 30-37
Abstracts Accumulation of Cr(VI) in rice seeds cultivated in Cr-contaminated soil of the Sundarbans (India) is an environmental problem. Cr(VI) concentration in this soil was 6.2 ± 0.3 mg/kg, whereas total chromium was 32.04 ± 1.60 mg/kg. A Cr(VI)-removing bacterium isolated from Cr-contaminated paddy field soil of Sundarbans was identified asStaphylococcus sciuri. Enrichment culture of S.sciuri was applied to pot cultivation of rice in Cr-contaminated soil. After 8 weeks, 71 ± 3% Cr(VI) (final concentration 2.15 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and 65 ± 2% total Cr removal (end concentration 11.3 ± 0.5 mg/kg) were attained in bacterium-treated soils. Growth parameters indicated healthy development of plants cultivated in bacterium-treated soils that was not observed in control plants. Total Cr removal attained in rice seeds of plants cultivated in bacteriumtreated soils compared with control rice seeds was 78 ± 4%. Total Cr concentration in test seeds was 0.72 ± 0.05 mg/kg (World Health Organization [WHO] permissible limit: 1.30 mg/kg), whereas the same in control seeds was 3.27 ± 0.16 mg/kg. Cr(VI) reduction achieved in rice seeds cultivated in bacterium-treated soil compared with control rice seeds was 95 ± 5%. Cr(VI) concentration in rice seeds cultivated in treated soil was 0.050 ± 0.003 mg/kg, whereas the same in untreated control was 0.93 ± 0.05 mg/kg. Successful paddy field soil bioremediation by any Staphylococcus species was demonstrated for the first time.
Keywords Agriculture; biotransformation; 16SrRNA; Sundarbans; tannery
Title Synergistic effect of chickpea plants and Mesorhizobium as a natural system for chromium phytoremediation
Author Name Pilar A. Velez, Melina A. Talano,Cintia E. Paisio, Elizabeth Agostini & Paola S. González
Journal Name Environmental Technology
Year 2017
Volume and Issue 38, Issue17
Pages 2164-2172
Abstracts The presence of chromium in soils not only affects the physiological processes of plants but also the microbial rhizosphere composition and metabolic activities of microorganisms. Hence, the inoculation of plants with Cr(VI)-tolerant rhizospheric microorganisms as an alternative to reduce Cr phytotoxicity was studied. In this work, chickpea germination was reduced by Cr(VI) concentrations of 150 and 250mg/L (6 and 33%, respectively); however lower Cr(VI) concentrations negatively affected the biomass. On the other hand, its symbiont, Mesorhizobium ciceri, was able to grow and remove different Cr(VI) concentrations (5–20mg/L). The inoculation of chickpea plants with this strain exposed to Cr(VI) showed a significantly enhanced plant growth. In addition, inoculated plants accumulated higher Cr concentration in roots than those noninoculated. It is important to note that Cr was not translocated to shoots independently of inoculation. These results suggest that Mesorhizobium’s capability to remove Cr(VI) could be exploited for bioremediation. Moreover, chickpea plants would represent a natural system for phytoremediation or phytostabilization of Cr in situ that could be improved with M. ciceri inoculation. This strategy would be considered as a phytoremediation tool with great economic and ecological relevance.
Keywords Chromium; chickpea; phytoremediation; microsieve; Mesorhizobium; interaction
Title Chromium Accumulation in Medicinal Plants Growing Naturally on Tannery Contaminated and Non-contaminated Soils
Author Name S. Jaison,T. Muthukumar
Journal Name Biological Trace Element Research
Year 2017
Volume and Issue 175, Issue1
Pages 223-235
Abstracts Herbal preparations used to treat human ailments globally can be contaminated with various heavy metals (HMs) originating from the raw materials or from the manufacturing processes. Therefore, we assessed 22 medicinal plants growing naturally on tannery pollutant contaminated (Site-C) and non-contaminated (Site-NC) sites for their ability to accumulate chromium (Cr). The Cr contents in soil and various plant parts were estimated using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Translocation and bioconcentration factors were calculated. The soil at Site-C had 27-fold higher concentration of total Cr than at Site-NC. Chromium accumulation is reported for the first time in 50 % of the medicinal plants examined and varied significantly among the sites. Shoots of Ricinus communis andAmaranthus viridis had maximum concentrations of Cr at Site-C, whereas in Site-NC, none of the plants had Cr accumulation >30 ppm. Ricinus communis, Amaranthus viridis, andAmaranthus spinosus had translocation factor (TF) greater than the one in the SiteC andLantana camara had TF >1 in Site-NC. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) was >1 only forRicinus communis at both the sites. The majority of the medicinal plants at Site-NC had Cr content exceeding the permissible limit of 2 ppm suggested for herbal raw material. The results of the study clearly emphasize the need for screening plants of therapeutic value for the presence of HMs even when collected from non-contaminated soils. Moreover, proportional allocation of Cr in different plant parts provided an insight on the safety of these parts when specifically used in herbal preparations.
Keywords Bioconcentration factor; Heavy metal; Herbal raw material; Potential risk; Traditional medicine; Translocation factor
Title Phyto-Toxicity of Chromium in Maize: Oxidative Damage, Osmolyte Accumulation, Anti-Oxidative Defense and Chromium Uptake
Author Name Shakeel Ahmad Anjum, Umair Ashraf, Imran Khan,Mohsin Tanveer, Muhammad Shahid, Abdul Shakoor, Longchang Wang
Journal Name Pedosphere
Year 2017
Volume and Issue 27, Issue2
Pages 262-273
Abstracts Agricultural production systems are immensely exposed to different environmental stresses in which heavy metal stress receives serious concerns. This study was conducted to explore the deleterious effects of different chromium (Cr) stress levels,i.e., 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 μmol L−1, on two maize genotypes, Wandan 13 and Runnong 35. Both genotypes were evaluated by measuring their growth and yield characteristics, Cr accumulation in different plant tissues, alterations in osmolyte accumulation, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and anti-oxidative enzyme activity to scavenge ROS. The results showed that Cr stress decreased the leaf area, cob formation, 100-grain weight, shoot fresh biomass, and yield formation, while Cr accumulation in different maize tissues was found in the order of roots > leaves > stem > seeds in both genotypes. The increased Cr toxicity resulted in higher free proline, soluble sugars and total phenolic contents, and lower soluble protein contents. However, enhanced lipid peroxidation was noticed in the forms of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance accumulation, and electrolyte leakage. The hyperactivity of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, especially glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase indicated that these anti-oxidative enzymes had a central role in protecting maize from Cr toxicity, especially for Wandan 13. Moreover, higher uptake and less translocation of Cr contents into the grains of Wandan 13 implied its importance as a potential candidate against soil Cr pollution.
Keywords agronomic characteristics; anti-oxidative enzyme activity; Cr accumulation; Cr translocation; heavy metal stress; reactive oxygen species