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| Last Updated:: 11/10/2018







The air borne fluoride (F) usually in the form of hydrogen fluoride HF is a primary gaseous pollutant other gases like silicon fluoride SiF4 and fluorine (F2) are also reported as phytotoxic. It is released in the atmosphere mainly from aluminium industries, steel manufacturing industries and phosphate fertilizer plants. Like SO2, it is an accumulative poison. Most soil contain some soluble fluoride, background concentration in the soil may reach 1%, although it is generally less than 0.05% (500 ppm) in typical agriculture soils. Soil fluoride is normally taken up by plants only in small amounts. The background concentration in plants is low, often as low as 1 and less than 10 ppm in most species (Weinstein, 1977). However a few species such as hickory and dogwood as well as members of Theaceae, Diapensiaceae, Melastomataceae, Rubiaciae and others (Davison, 1983) have the capacity to accumulate hundreds, even thousands of parts per million, even when the atmospheric and soil available F concentrations are at background levels. (Weinstein, 1977, Davison 1982, Weinstein et al 1999). Generally no relation exists between the fluoride content of the soil and fluoride in the plants growing in it (Fluhler et al 1981). Rather it is the atmospheric fluorides that are most critical to excessive accumulation and plant response.




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